After the war of 1999 Kosovo was administered by the United Nations (Decision of the Security Council 1244/1999). In March 2007 UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari presented a proposal for solution which provided sovereignty under international monitoring. Since the mediation efforts between Belgrade and Pristina started in summer 2007 by the troika Russian Federation-USA-EU did not meet success, the Parliament of Kosovo asserted the independence of Kosovo on 17 February 2008. The Constitution of Kosovo entered into force on 15 June 2008.
In the meantime more than 100 states, among them 23 member states of the EU, have recognized the independence of Kosovo. Within the EU, Cyprus, Greece, Slovakia, Spain and Romania have not yet recognized the independence of Kosovo. Austria recognized Kosovo on 28 February 2008 and started diplomatic relations on 20 March 2008. The then existing Office in Pristina was transformed into an Embassy.
In February 2008 the EU decided to deploy a European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) which reached full operability in March 2009. EULEX is the biggest civilian mission of the EU ever.
The Stabilisation and Association Agreement between Kosovo and the EU was signed on 27 October 2015 and entered into force on 1 April 2016.